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Documents legalization

18-02-2020 Whether you are planning to settle abroad, or being already abroad while needing an Egyptian official document such as the birth certificate, marriage certificates, unmarried status declarations, diploma and university degree, these official documents must be legalized in order to be recognized in the destination country, legalization confirms that the seal and the signature on the document have been issued by the authorized public official. Most cases legalization process are so frustrated as the process differs depending on the type of the document, the concerned departments, and transforming the documents to and from the home country and deliver it back to the destination country, In order to not waste your time you will need a specialist who has the knowledge as well as the experience to get your papers ready on the time.  Our specialized attorneys are ready to assist you whether you are individual or company to get your documents legalized. The following is a brief outline the main points regarding the legalization and authentication the documents in Egypt. Why the legalization is a must process in some cases for you? Legalization of foreign documents to be submitted it in Egypt: Any document issued abroad must legalize first in order to be submitted in Egypt. It has to be authenticated by the competent authorities of the issued country, before it can be legalized by the Egyptian Embassy. Legalization of Egyptian documents to submit abroad: Any document issued in Egypt must authenticate by the MOFA (the ministry of foreign affairs) in order to be legalized by the embassy- consult of the destination country in Egypt. What are the documents that can be authenticated or legalized in Egypt? 1.    Certificates of civil status (Birth certificate, death certificate, Marriage certificate, unmarried status declaration); 2. Education certificates (school, university Degrees, diploma); 3. Experience and employment certificates; 4. Police clearance Certificate; 5. Commercial documents such as Articles of association, financial documents ;  What are the Authorities that are involved in legalization process? There are different authorities that are involved in the process of authentication and legalization depending on the documents, mainly they are:  1- Civil authority; 2- Ministry of Education or notary in Egypt; 3- Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Egypt or an Apostille; 4- Embassy or Consulate in Egypt; 5- Ministry of foreign affairs of the destination country;  Requirements in order to complete the legalization process: 1- Original certificate(s); 2- Passport copy; 3- Declaration form; 4- Power of Attorney (if required). Our specialized attorneys are ready to assist you whether you are individual or company to get your documents legalized; also we are offering a discount on bulk documents, for more information please contact us.  

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Mergers and Acquisition transactions according to the Egyptian laws.

18-01-2020 The private as well as public Merger and acquisition (M&A) projects has a significant role in revitalizing the financial market, also it plays an important rule in reducing the effect of the monopolization, as well as protecting the competition in the market.  The following is a brief outline the M&A rules according to the Egyptian laws and regulations; Governing laws & regulations:  Public M&A transactions in Egypt are regulated basically by the capital market law No.95 of 1992 ,companies law No.159 of 1981 for their executive regulations as amended ,as well as the Egyptian exchange listing rules. Public M&A transactions: The structure of the public M&A transactions determine by some elements as the amount of the shares that are offered on the transaction, whether the company's shares are offered to the public or not, and the tax consideration. According to the executive regulations of the capital market law; 1- If the investor is willing to acquire more than 1/3 of the capital of the target company listed or not listed, that shares are offered to the public, then the investor must submit a mandatory tender offer addressed to all shareholders of the target company for the acquisition of up to 100% of the share capital of Target Company; 2- If the investor is willing to acquire less than 1/3 of the capital of the target company that shares are offered to the public, then it could be done by either the open market transactions or the tender offer.  Exemption cases from conducting the mandatory tender offer: According to the executive regulation the investor may be exempt from submitting mandatory offer after getting the Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA) approval in some cases, such as the capital restricting among the related parties as stipulated in the executive regulation, the transfer of the pledged securities ownership to the bank according to the central Egyptian bank rules, the approval of all the shareholders of the target company, or the cases of reduction the capital by the retirement of treasury stocks.    Restrictions  ; 1- The price of the offer cannot be less than the maximum price paid by the bidder and/or related parties in a tender offer made during the preceding twelve months of the current offer; 2- In the case of the mandatory tender offer the price of the offer must be cash, and cannot be less than the maximum price paid by the bidder and/or related parties in a tender offer made during the preceding twelve months of the current offer; 3- The offeror cannot withdrawal his offer during its validity period, unless the intrinsic event took place and the prior approval of FSA is a must; 4- The offeror is prohibited from submitting another tender offer for a period of six months from the date of submitting the last mandatory offer unless he got the approval of the FSA. Private M&A transactions: Private M&A transactions have an essential role of the Egyptian financial market and having its great impact as a pricing adjustment mechanism. The applicable law; It's common in the practice to involve a foreign applicable law to be applied to the private M&A transactions; however it's always advisable to not include any provisions which are violating the mandatory rules applicable to the target company to guarantee a smooth running of the transaction. The conditions of the private M&A transactions; The conditions that applied to the private M&A transactions are left to be determined on each transaction depends on the amount of the potential acquired shares, the governmental approvals as well as the licensees, non-competition restrictions, employments contracts, tax rate, among others .  

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